High FODMAP Foods to Avoid

what are fodmaps

New here?  Welcome.  You’ve landed on my blog where I teach people about the low-FODMAP diet, an elimination diet which helps ease symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth (SIBO).  If you’re tired of IBS symptoms intruding on your life, there’s good news.  The low-FODMAP diet is an evidence-based diet that helps relieve symptoms of IBS without the use of drugs.  Below you will find my list of foods that are high in FODMAPs.  But first, what are FODMAPs and what is this diet all about?

The low-FODMAP diet eliminates FODMAPs, which are short-chain carbohydrates (sugars and fibers) that are malabsorbed and easily fermented in the small intestine. The fermented food then moves on to the large intestine, where bacteria have a feast, causing gas, bloating, distention, constipation and/or diarrhea.

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What are FODMAPs?

FODMAPs are a collection of molecules found in the foods we eat everyday.  The acronym FODMAP stands for:

Oligosaccharides (Fructans and Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS))
Disaccharides (Lactose)
Monosaccharides (excess Fructose)
Polyols (eg. Sorbitol, Mannitol, Maltitol, Xylitol and Isomalt)

If you are following the Low-FODMAP diet, you will want to avoid all foods high in FODMAPs.  They include: fructans, galacto-oligosaccharides, lactose, excess fructose and polyols.  FODMAP experts say the term of the diet should last anywhere from 2-6 weeks for the Elimination Phase and then the Reintroduction/Challenge Phase requires another couple of weeks.  You can learn more about the diet by checking out my most popular Top Posts & Pages (listed at right).

Here is a short list of foods that contain FODMAPs:

  • Oligosaccharides – (fructans) Garlic, onions, wheat, inulin, artichokes; (galacto-oligosaccharides [GOS]) legume beans, lentils, chickpeas
  • Disaccharides – Milk, condensed and evaporated milk, milk powder, ice cream, yogurt, cheese that is unripe
  • Monosaccharides – Honey, agave, apples, mangoes, pear, watermelon, High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS)
  • Polyols: apples, avocado, cherries, nectarines, prunes, mushrooms, sorbitol or other sugar alcohols that end in “ol” like mannitol, xylitol, maltitol as well as isomalt.

If you have already taken hydrogen breath tests and know you can completely absorb fructose, lactose, OR polyols, you do not have to negate them from your diet, but can as an extra precaution during the elimination phase.

Not sure if the diet will work?  Meet other people who also have IBS and or other health conditions with IBS right here on my Facebook page or on Instagram.  Ask questions, make friends and find others who are on the diet and the many who feel better!

The low-FODMAP diet can be confusing, and there’s a lot of conflicting information online.  You may need a little extra help, and it’s highly recommended that you do reach out to a professional trained in the low-FODMAP diet to ensure your success and most of all to help you make healthy choices.  I am a trained Certified Nutritionist Consultant and a graduate of The Low-FODMAP Diet Training Program™. I can help you to implement the low-FODMAP diet for the relief of gastrointestinal symptoms. We will not only cover the diet together, we will also take a good look at your current eating behaviors, stress level and any environmental factors that may be playing a role in your symptoms.  Contact me today for a consultation.

High FODMAP Foods to Avoid

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High FODMAP Foods to Avoid

All foods included in this list are HIGH in FODMAPs and should be avoided during the Elimination Phase, the first phase of the low-FODMAP diet. If you see a serving size next to a food on this list it means that in a smaller serving it is low in FODMAPs. When that is the case, please refer to the Low-FODMAPs List for the appropriate low-FODMAP serving size.


  • Apples (fresh or dried)
  • Applesauce
  • Apricots (fresh or dried)
  • Asian pears
  • Blackberries
  • Boysenberries
  • Cherries
  • Currants
  • Dates
  • Feijoa
  • Figs (fresh or dried)
  • Goji berries (dried)
  • Grapefruit
  • Lychee
  • Mangoes (fresh or dried)
  • Nectarines
  • Peaches (all)
  • Pears (dried or nashi, packham-firm or ripe)
  • Persimmon
  • Pineapple (dried only)
  • Plums
  • Prunes
  • Raisins
  • Sultanas
  • Tamarillo
  • Watermelon


  • Artichokes (Jerusalem, globe)
  • Asparagus (1 spear, moderate)
  • Beetroot
  • Cabbage, savoy
  • Cassava
  • Cauliflower
  • Cho cho
  • Choko
  • Corn, sweet
  • Garlic
  • Karela
  • Leeks
  • Mushroom, button
  • Onions, shallots (all including onion powder)
  • Peas, snow
  • Peas, sugar snap
  • Peas, thawed
  • Scallion, Spring Onion bulbs (only use green tips)
  • Snow peas
  • Sugar snap peas
  • Taro

Legumes, Beans

  • Baked beans
  • Black beans, boiled
  • Borlotti beans
  • Broad beans
  • Four bean mix
  • Haricot beans
  • Kidney beans
  • Chickpeas and Lentils
  • LOW as long as they are canned, drained and rinsed – canning helps to leech out FODMAPs.   Refer to Low-FODMAPs List for serving size.
  • Lima beans (1/2 cup)
  • Mung beans (1/2 cup)
  • Red kidney beans (boiled)
  • Soya beans (boiled)
  • Split peas (boiled)

Vegetarian Substitutes

  • Falafel
  • Lentil burger
  • Mince (containing onion)

Nuts, Seeds

  • Almonds (20 nuts) -Refer to Low-FODMAPs List for LOW serving size.
  • Pistachios
  • Cashews


  • Meats containing onion, garlic, onion or garlic powders, dehydrated powders, bread crumbs, dried fruits.
  • Marinades/sauces/gravies when prepared with meats may contain high-FODMAPs

Dairy, Cheese

  • Buttermilk
  • Condensed milk
  • Cream cheese (2 tablespoons, moderate)
  • Crème fraîche
  • Custard
  • Ice cream
  • Kefir

Milk, Dairy

  • a2
  • Evaporated
  • Regular
  • Full cream
  • Cow, full cream, reduced fat, skim
  • Goat, full cream
  • Skim
  • Milk Alternatives
    • Oat
    • Rice
    • Soy (soy beans/sweetened/ unsweetened)
  • Milk powder (milk solids)
  • Pudding
  • Soft cheeses
    • More than 2 tablespoons is HIGH
  • Yogurt
    • Indian
    • Low-fat
    • Regular
    • Flavored
    • Made from cow/goat/sheep’s milk


Chocolate when consumed in high amounts can irritate the gut due to its fat, sugar and caffeine content. * Refer to Low-FODMAPs List for serving sizes.

  • Fruit bar (1/2 bar)

Snacks, Biscuits & Cookies

  • Bar, cereal, wheat-based
  • Bar, granola, oat and honey (2 bars)
  • Bar, muesli-based with fruit (1/2 bar)
  • Biscuit/cookie, chocolate chip (2)
  • Biscuit, fruit filled
  • Cookies, chocolate crème sandwich (U.S., 1 cookie)
  • Corn thins, flavored, sour cream and chives (4)
  • Rice cakes, flavored, sour cream and chives (4)
  • Rye crispbread (1)

Breads, Cakes, Flours       

  • Breads
  • Gluten-free, multigrain (U.S., 2 slices)
  • Gluten-free, wholegrain, sweetened with pear juice (U.S., 1 slice)
  • Multi-grain, sprouted (U.S., 2 slices)
  • Naan or roti
  • Oatmeal (U.S., 1 slice)
  • Pumpernickel (1 slice)
  • Raisin toast
  • Rye, rye dark, rye sourdough
  • Sourdough, kamut, wholemeal
  • Spelt, 100% spelt flour (2 slices)
  • Wheat, 100% whole wheat (U.S., 1 slice)
  • Wheat, high fiber (U.S., 1 slice)
  • Wheat, multigrain (2 slices)
  • Wheat, white (2 slices)
  • Wheat, white (U.S., 2 slices)
  • Wheat, white (Norway, 1 slice)
  • Wheat, wholegrain (2 slices)
  • Wheat, wholegrain (U.S., 2 slices)
  • Wheat, wholemeal (2 slices)
  • Wheat, wholemeal (Norway, 1 slices)
  • Wheat, wholemeal and oatmeal (U.S., 1 slice)


Wheat-based or made with other high-FODMAP flours below or including any other high-FODMAPs (like dried fruits, honey, agave, etc.):

  • Breadcrumbs
  • Cakes
  • Cookies
  • Croissants
  • Muffins
  • Pastries containing wheat/rye


  • Almond, meal (1/2 cup)
  • Khorasan (kamut) wholewheat flour
  • Amaranth
  • Barley
  • Chickpea flour (in small amounts only)
  • Couscous
  • Durum
  • Einkorn, organic
  • Emmer
  • Lupin
  • Lentil flour (in small amounts)
  • Multigrain flour
  • Pea flour (in small amounts)
  • Rye
  • Spelt, organic, white or wholemeal
  • Soy flour (in small amounts)
  • Triticale
  • Wheat bran
  • Wheat flour
  • Wheat germ

Grains & Pastas

  • Barley, pearl
  • Bourghal, cooked (1/2 cup)
  • Bran, wheat, processed and unprocessed (1 tablespoon)
  • Cous cous, rice and corn, cooked (1/2 cup)
  • Cous cous, wheat, cooked (1/2 cup)
  • Freekeh, cooked (1/4 cup)
  • Noodles, wheat
  • Pasta, spelt, cooked (1 cup)
  • Pasta, wheat, cooked (1 cup)
  • Gnocchi, wheat
  • Granola, fruit and nut
  • Rice crisps (U.S.,1 cup)


  • Flakes of corn (U.S.,1 cup)
  • Flakes of wheat, corn, rice, oats, dried fruit, nuts (1/2 cup)
  • Flakes, barley or spelt or gluten-free rice flakes with psyllium
  • Muesli, plain, or free of yeast, wheat, gluten, dairy, nut (all HIGH)
  • Oatmeal (fine, organic, Denmark, 1 cup)
  • Wheat-based multi-grain breakfast cereal
  • Wheat bran, pellets
  • Whole wheat grain biscuit


  • Agave nectar
  • Honey
  • Sugar alcohols
    • Isomalt
    • Maltitol
    • Mannitol
    • Sorbitol
    • Xylitol
  • High fructose corn syrup (HFCS)
  • Corn syrup solids
  • Fructose
  • Pear juice
  • Fruit juice concentrate


Many condiments are made with FODMAPs, but you can make your own at home! Refer to recipes in Chapter 13 for ideas. Always read ingredient labels for any condiments you purchase:

  • Chutneys
  • Gravies
  • Chicken, vegetable, beef stock
  • Vegetable and beef bouillon cubes
  • Dressings
  • Sauces
  • Brand-made relishes
  • Oil-based sauces and condiments

Drinks, Juices

  • More than a 1/2 cup of any fruit juice
  • Apple
  • Apple and Raspberry cordial
  • Berry fruit blend (from juice bar)
  • Pear
  • Tropical and mango juices
  • Orange
    • 98% reconstituted
    • 99% blend
    • Orange cordials


  • Chicory-based coffee substitutes
  • Espresso decaf or regular
    • Made with cow or soy milk (soy beans)
  • Instant decaf or regular
    • Made with cow or soy milk (soy beans)

Teas – (250 ml)

  • Black
    • Strong made with soy milk (soy beans)
  • Dandelion
    • Strong made with water
  • Fennel tea
    • Strong or weak made with water
  • Chamomile tea
    • Strong or weak made with water
  • Chai tea
    • Strong made with water, cow’s milk, low-FODMAP milk alternatives, soy milk (soy beans)
  • Herbal tea
    • Strong made with water
  • Oolong tea
    • Strong or weak made with water


  • Coconut water fresh (250 ml)
  • Coconut water packaged (250 ml)
  • Carob powder (for drinking)


  • Rum
  • Wine, sweet, dessert, “sticky”

Diet, Sugar-free, Low Carb

Label warnings that say: “Excess consumption may have a laxative effect” and other products containing polyol additives as artificial sweeteners:

  • Sorbitol
  • Mannitol
  • Maltitol
  • Xylitol
  • Polydextrose
  • Isomalt
  • Mints
  • Candy
  • Desserts

Here is a breakdown of which foods are high in fructose, polyols and lactose:

  • Excess Free Fructose = EFF
  • High-Polyol Foods = HPF
  • High-Lactose Foods = HLF


Apples or applesauce, apricots, Asian pears, blackberries, boysenberries, cherries, figs, mangoes, nectarines, peaches, pears, persimmon, plums, prunes, tamarillo, watermelon, white peaches

  • EFF – Apples, Asian pears, boysenberries, cherries, figs, mangoes, pears, tamarillo, watermelon
  • HPF – Apples, apricots, Asian pears, blackberries, nectarines, peaches, pears, plums, prunes, watermelon


Artichokes (all), asparagus, cauliflower, garlic, leeks, mushrooms, onions (all onions including onion powder), scallions (only the green tips), shallots, snow peas, sugar snap peas, legume beans (eg. baked beans, kidney beans, bortolotti beans), lentils, chickpeas.

  • EFF – Artichokes, asparagus, sugar snap peas
  • HPF – Cauliflower, mushrooms, snow peas

*Learn more about all legumes and serving sizes by reading this post Low-FODMAP Servings for Legumes


If you do not malabsorb lactose then you do not need to restrict these foods.  Ask your dietitian about testing for lactose malabsorption.

All HLF – Ice cream, regular milk, goat’s or sheep’s milk, yogurt (made from cow, goat or sheep’s milk), milk powder (milk solids), pudding, evaporated milk, sweetened condensed milk and soft cheeses (amounts greater than 1/2 C) -cottage cheese, cream cheese, creme fraiche, mascarpone, ricotta.


Agave nectar, honey, sugar alcohols like sorbitol, mannitol, maltitol and xylitol; high fructose corn syrup, corn syrup solids, fructose, pear juice, fruit juice concentrate.

  • EFF – Agave nectar, high-fructose corn syrup, fructose, fruit juice concentrate, pear juice, honey
  • HPF – sorbitol, mannitol, maltitol and xylitol, polydextrose, isomalt

Eda s Sugar Free Hard Candy

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57 thoughts on “High FODMAP Foods to Avoid”

  1. wondering is cocoa powder o.k, or dark chocolate to eat if not what can u sub with? also… what about whey protein or protein bars without soy added or gluten? any acceptable at least? Thanks!! I am New to FodMaps and need to follow it BADLY!! Thank you!!

    1. Hi Jen,
      Please reference the grocery list, and scroll to bottom to find info about chocolate: http://fodmaplife.com/fodmap-grocery-list/
      For protein powders, I got my information from Patsy Catsos RD: Egg white is OK, Rice is OK, Whey protein isolate is OK
      Whey protein concentrate is only OK if a lactose free claim is also made. 98% or better is probably fine for all but the most lactose-intolerant people.
      Soy protein probably has FODMAPs
      Soy protein isolate is an unknown. If truly an “isolate”, then it would have been separated from the fiber in the soy, so might be OK.
      Hemp protein is an unknown with respect to FODMAP status
      Pea protein of any kind is an unknown but probably has FODMAPs

      Hope you’ve signed up for our newsletter: http://goo.gl/AW6GkK ~ Colleen

  2. thanks for replying… What about protein bars?? Must be fodmaps friendly! I know gluten free exists but tthats it…. I need fodmaps friendly!! Thanks!!

  3. OOPS!! Also I did look says dark chocolate o.k.. but Not Carob powder I Get that… But I don’t se anything about Cocoa powder!! Sorry for so many questions!! Thanks!!

  4. Hi Colleen,
    Jen Again!!! I was wondering about Black Currants?? I was told those were o.k? I don’t see them on either list and I see grapes are o.k.. So are Raisons o.k?? Also… You say Bananas o.k.. But how ripe do they need to be?? Also…. ARe ALL BEANS a NO?? I was wondering about Black beans! As well as Cocoa Powder. Thanks so much! Really appreciate it!!
    and YES.. I did most definately sign up for the news letter!! Thanks so much!!

    1. Hi Jen,

      The composition of blackcurrants varies a lot depending on how ripe they are – levels of sugars, fruit acids and anthocyanins generally increase as the fruit ripens. From Monash University, I only see “currants” listed (nothing specific like black, red, white or pink currants). The currants they refer to are under the “processed fruit” category and therefore have a HIGH FODMAP rating – because processed fruits are high in sugars (Oligosaccharides). 1 TB is safe and your limit. Raisins need to be limited to the same serving size too – pretty much any dried fruit is high in fodmaps because the sugars have become so concentrated from drying. Dried cranberries are also OK again for a 1 TB serving.

      Cocoa powder and cocoa powder for drinking- 2 heaping teaspoons is OK

      With chick peas (canned) as well as lentils (canned) 1/4 C is OK. Green and red lentils (boiled) has a moderate rating. Butter beans (canned) has a high rating. Boiled lima beans, haricot beans, red kidney beans and soya beans are also HIGH. Canned borlotti beans are HIGH, same with baked beans.

      Good luck – Colleen 🙂

      1. Hi Colleen,
        Thanks for replying!! I have another (or few more questions).. I was wondering More so on Black beans… I haven’t seen those on the list at all… as well as Tapioca Fiber ( i find this in certain protein bars) Wondering if that is safe and what it is? Also, Probiotic Fibers such as Isomalto-Oligosaccharides? What IS THAT??? I take probiotics what should I stay Clear from Because my gas gets SOOoooooooooo bad some days worse than others and wondering if things like this can hurt. Another question is whats the difference between High Fructose Corn Syrup and corn syrup?? Is corn syrup safer to eat in moderation seeing corn is o.k. to eat in moderation?? Thanks again REALLY APPRECIATE All your Help… I really Am Grateful! Thanks again 🙂

  5. Colleen…so grateful for your website!!! where can I have tests done for ..Hydrogen Breath and Malabsorb Lactose , not going to a Dietician….thank you

    1. I had mine done with a gastroenterologist. What you want to keep in mind is to find a gastro who specialized in IBS. There are some that only specialize in celiac or only in IBD. Find out what his/her specialty is before you go through all the tests and appointments with them!

      1. Colleen,
        what is a Hydrogen Breath test?? I am going soon for the lactose test and fructose breath test. is that the same as Hydrogen?? Curious…?? Because lately cannpt eat ANYTHING… Real bad..! Also I mentioned on another post about cassava and I found out what it is is Yuka root? Is that o.k to eat it seemed to make me very gassy!! Also wondering about Tapioca fiber in protein bars is that similar to galacto-oligosaccharides?? Thanks so much!!

  6. Colleen ..I believe I saw a recipe for roasted Brussell Sprouts…but did not see them on your shopping list…are they allowed. Thanks again

  7. Colleen…thank you, I have gone to the same Gastro Dr. for 20 yrs., I do not believe he specializes in IBS…have an appt. next wk. I will ask prior to my apt re: tests …thanks ps. I have so many ?’s , just getting started. BTW, will you please respond to my other comments?

  8. Was told today that I need to look into starting the FODMAP diet. But…here’s the deal…I am currently taking THRIVE by Le-Vel. More info can be found at http://www.le-vel.com (ingredients and such). And to be honest, I LOVE it. Wondering now though if I need to stop the capsule, shake, DFT patch regimen while doing the FODMAP diet. I am fairly overwhelmed with all of this. Thanks so much!

  9. Hi I was wondering with meats are they all fodmap friendly like ham, pepperoni, prosciutto. I can’t find anything specific about this. Thank you

  10. There seems to be conflicting information on Tumeric and Curcumin. I have read that they are both high and low. Could you confimr

    1. Hi Colleen
      Yes can you pls confirm on tumeric i too have heard conflicting info as well as saffron which is tumeric. I would like to know definitely on more spices. Thanks

    1. Hi Johnathen, According to low-FODMAP research, black beans are HIGH in FODMAPs. Other beans high in FODMAPs are: baked beans, borlotti, broad, butter, four bean mix, haricot, lima, red kidney and soya. Hope that helps and be sure to sign up for our newsletter for more tips, advice and recipes! SIGN UP: http://goo.gl/HCX1xD

  11. So sad that onions and garlic are “no-no”s. Have you ever seen a situation where an individual is sensitive to some but not all of the restricted foods? Also, a big question of mine when keeping my food journal (which I have been doing) is…How long does it take to react to a certain food? For instance, if I have garlic and don’t have a stomach issue for 2 days, does that rule out a negative reaction to garlic? Once more question. Where does popcorn (specifically a brand called Skinny Pop) fall in the fodmap list. Low or high?

    1. Hi Leslie,
      Good question! That is the purpose of following the low-FODMAP diet – to see which FODMAPs cause the most trouble. Even though you may end up negating a food and find that later it’s not an issue for you – it still means that by following the diet, you’ll have a more accurate account of what your real triggers are. You can take a hydrogen breath test to see if you malabsorb fructose, lactose or polyols. If no intolerance is found, then you can eat those foods during the elimination phase. For Skinny Pop you would need to send me the ingredients.

  12. I seem to have a problem with all nuts, as soon as I eat them my tummy distends alarmingly and gives me pain, then a lot of gas, if I do have IBS would it be best to avoid nuts in total, or does this strike you or anyone else as being more colitis than IBS? I’m the same way with lettuce, and really anything raw other than banana’s.

    1. Do you have colitis? If so, it’s recommended to stay away from whole or pieces of nuts, but nut butters are ok. No pistachios or cashews on the low-FODMAP diet.

  13. I recently had an annual physical with my internist. She is very concerned about my weight loss. (I am 5’5” and went from 130 to 120 lbs since I have been watching the FODMAPS. She said my BMI is 20 and should be higher. How can I gain weight if I have to limit my food, limit my portions of food and wait 3 hours between eating. I am frustrated and hungry. Please advise.

  14. I need to explain a bit further because if I was just using FODMAP, I could probably eat more. I have restricted myself more (SCD) because of a suspicion of SIBO. Breath test was negative but GI doc put me on rifaximin anyway due to symptoms. As soon as I introduce something NOT on SCD, I pay for it. That may explain my frustration (above post) a bit better.

  15. Do you have a list of foods by FODMAPs – eg frustose, lactose, polyols – rather than by food e.g. fruits, grains etc.
    Thanks 🙂

    1. Both have not been tested/analyzed but you can always try a little to see if it bothers your gut. Hot sauce can be an irritant for some people’s guts.

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